Understanding and acceptance of systems engineering in automotive product development
Systems Engineering (SE) is a new engineering method for many firms in Automotive Product Development that expectedly advances their development processes to meet their stakeholder needs more effectively. Literature suggest that understanding and acceptance are key factors in the implementation, however comprehensive modes for their increase are barely discussed. In this paper, we propose a Participatory Action Research based on multiple research elements to find an effective technique for gaining understanding and acceptance on SE in a validated model environment of automotive industry called Formula SAE. We present practical outcomes at each steps of the implementation process and analyze the effect of improvements in the context of strategy, structure processes.
Abrell, T., Benker, A., & Pihlajamaa, M. (2017). User knowledge utilization in innovation of complex products and systems: An absorptive capacity perspective, Creativity and Innovation Management, 27(2), 169–182.
Ackermann, M., Schell, S., & Kopp, S. (2021). How Mercedes-Benz addresses digital transformation using Holacracy, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 34(7), 1285-1299.
Aguilar, J. A., Garrigós, I., & Mazón, J. N. (2016). Requirements Engineering in the Development Process of Web Systems: A Systematic Literature Review, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 13(3), 61-80.
Akingbola, K., Rogers, S.E., Baluch, A. (2019). A Model of Change for Nonprofit Organizations, In: Change Management in Nonprofit Organizations. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham., 73-94.
Albers, A., Bursac, N., Eckert, C. M., Walter, B., Wilmsen, M., & Heimicke, J. (2018). Agile Method Development: A live-lab Case Study on Product Properties for Process Planning, In DS 92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference, 713-724.
Andreasen, M.M. (2003) Improving Design Methods’ Usability by a Mindset Approach, Human Behaviour in Design, 209-218.
Araujo, C. D. (2001). Acquisition of product development tools in industry: a theoretical contribution. Lyngby, Denmark, Technical University of Denmark
Badke-Schaub, P., Daalhuizen, J., & Roozenburg, N. (2011). Towards a designer-centred methodology: descriptive considerations and prescriptive reflections. The future of design methodology, 14(1), 181-197.
Baughey, K. (2011). Functional and Logical Structures: A Systems Engineering Approach, SAE 2011 World Congress, Warrendale, PA, USA, SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0517.
Bhise, V. D. (2017). Automotive product development: A systems engineering implementation. CRC Press, 24-25.
Birkhofer, H., Jänsch, J., & Kloberdanz, H. (2005). An extensive and detailed view of the application of design methods and methodology in industry. In DS 35: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, Melbourne, Australia, 276-288.
Bligård, L. O., Simonsen, E., Berlin, C. (2018). Perceived industrial usefulness of the ACD3-matrix-an interview study with product developers. DS 91: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th-17th August 2018.
Burge, S. E. (2010). Systems Engineering: Using Systems Thinking to Design Better Aerospace Systems. In: Blockley R, Shyy W (eds) Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering. Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1–24.
Chevalier, J. M., & Buckles, D. J. (2019). Participatory Action Research: Theory and Methods for Engaged Inquiry, Routledge.
Curuksu, J. D. (2018). The Client-Consultant Interaction, Data Driven, Management for Professionals, Springer, Cham.
Daalhuizen, J., & Cash, P. (2021). Method content theory: Towards a new understanding of methods in design. Design Studies, 75(C), 101018, 1-34.
Daalhuizen, J., & Badke-Schaub, P. (2011). The use of methods by advanced beginner and expert industrial designers in non-routine situations: a quasi-experiment. International Journal of Product Development, 15(1-3), 54-70.
Davies, H. C. (2014). Formula student as part of a mechanical engineering curriculum, European Journal of Engineering Education, 38(5), 485-496.
De, M. & Giri, B. C. (2020). Optimal Decisions on Pricing and Greening Policies of Multiple Manufacturers Under Governmental Regulations on Greening and Carbon Emission, Decision Making: Applications in Management and Engineering, 3(1), 43-59.
Dumitrescu, C., Mazo, R., Salinesi, C., & Dauron, A. (2013). Bridging the gap between product lines and systems engineering. An experience in variability management for automotive model-based systems engineering, SPLC '13: Proceedings of the 17th International Software Product Line Conference, 254-263.
Dweck, C. S. (2017). Mindset: Changing the way you think to fulfil your potential. London, UK: Robinson
Entwistle, N., & Ramsden, P. (2015). Understanding Student Learning (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.
Ernzer, M., Lindahl, M., Masui, K., & Sakao, T. (2003). An international study on utilization of design for environment methods (DfE)-a prestudy. In Proceedings of EcoDesign 2003: Third International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 124–131.
Falk, K., & Muller, G. (2019). Embedded Master’s Students Conduct Highly Relevant Research Using Industry as Their Laboratory, Technology Innovation Management Review, 9(5), 54-73.
Fischer, R., Vorback, S., Hick, H., & Bajzek, M. (2020). Systems Engineering Organizational Constraints and Responsibilities. In: Hick H., Küpper K., Sorger H. (eds) Systems Engineering for Automotive Powertrain Development. Powertrain. Springer, Cham, 1-23.
Friedenthal, S., Moore, A., & Steiner, R. (2014). A Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language, 3rd edition, Morgan Kaufmann, Boston
Gál, T., Nagy, L., David, L., Vasa, L., & Balogh, P (2013). Technology planning system as a decision support tool for dairy farms in Hungary. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica 10(8), 231-244.
Gamble, J.R. (2020). Tacit vs explicit knowledge as antecedents for organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 33(6), 1123-1141.
Giacomin, M. L., & Forcellini, F. A. (2016). An Exploratory Study of the Implementation Process of the FMEA Method in the Product Development Process of Companies. Transdisciplinary Engineering: Crossing Boundaries, 9(1), 905-914.
Gyenge, B., Kasza, L., & Vasa, L. (2021). Introducing the EPP house (topological space) method to solve MRP problems. PLoS ONE, 16(6), 25-43.
Hage, H., Hashemi V., & Mantwill F. (2020). Towards a Systems Engineering Based Automotive Product Engineering Process, In: Muccini H. et al. (eds) Software Architecture. ECSA 2020. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 1269, 527-541.
Hedlund, C., & Ingo, A. (2018). The agile transformation in traditional organisations in regulated environments: A case study in the automotive and aerospace industries (Dissertation). KTH Industrial Engineering and Management, Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237265
Henderson, K., & Salado, A. (2021). Value and Benefits of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE): Evidence from the Literature, Systems Engineering, 24, 51-66.
Holloway, S. D. (2015). Leading and Engaging Sustainable Change: Achieving Organizational Transformation through the Transformative Methodologies of the Change Acceleration Process and Lean Six Sigma, PhD thesis, Cardinal Stritch University, WI, USA
Honoré-Livermore E., Fossum K. R., & Veitch E. (2022). Academics’ perception of systems engineering and applied research projects, Systems Engineering, 25(1), 19-34.
Honour, E. (2008). Systems engineering and complexity, Doctoral dissertation, University of southern California.
Huldt, T., & Stenius, I. (2019). State-of-Practice Survey of Model-Based Systems Engineering. Systems Engineering, 22, 134–145.
Inkermann, D. (2021). Shaping Method Ecosystems – Structured Implementation of Systems Engineering in Industrial Practice, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED21), Gothenburg, Sweden, 16-20 August 2021, 2641-2650.
Jackson, S. (2016). Systems Engineering for Commercial Aircraft: A Domain-Specific Adaptation (2nd ed.), Routledge, New York, NY, USA
Jackson, A., Resnick, S., Hansson, R., Burgess, K., & Bodnar, C. A. (2023). Exploration of the Experiences That Shape Engineering Students’ Entrepreneurial Mindset Development, Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 6(1), 60-86.
Johnsson, M. (2016). Innovation Enablers and Their Importance for Innovation Teams, Doctoral Dissertation Series No. 2016:07, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
Kasser, J. E. (2010). Seven systems engineering myths and the corresponding realities, In Systems Engineering Test and Evaluation Conference, 1-13.
Kolossváry, T., Dőry, T., & Feszty, D. (2020). Formula SAE as a Model Environment to Innovate Automotive Product Development, 58th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development – Budapest, 04-05 September 2020 Book of Proceedings, 283-293.
Kolossváry, T., Dőry, T., & Feszty, D. (2021). Implementation of Systems Engineering in a Model Environment of Automotive Product Development, In ISPIM Conference Proceedings - Berlin, Germany on 20–23 June, 1-12.
Kossiakoff A., Sweet W. N., Seymour S. J., & Biemer S. M. (2011). Systems engineering – principles and practice, Wiley, Series-editor: SAGE, Andrew P; Wiley series in systems engineering and management, 2 edn. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
Laing, C., David, P., Blanco, E., & Dorel, X. (2020). Questioning Integration of Verification in Model-based Systems Engineering: an Industrial Perspective, Computers in Industry, 114, 103163
Laporte, C. Y., Tremblay, N., Menaceur, J., Poliquin, D., & Houde, R. (2017). Systems engineering and management processes for small organizations with ISO/IEC 29110: An implementation in a small public transportation company, 2017 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), 1-8.
Laur, I. & Danilovic, M. (2020). Enabling change within new forms of organisations: an empirical investigation of change patterns and stakeholder influence on core intermediary activities. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 33(6), 1041-1070.
Lee, K., Sharif, M., Scandura, T., & Kim, J. (2017). Procedural justice as a moderator of the relationship between organizational change intensity and commitment to organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 30(4), 501-524.
Lesáková, L. (2012). The Role of Business Incubators in Supporting the SME Start-up. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 9(3), 85-95.
Lindahl, M. (2005). Engineering designers' requirements on design for environment methods and tools, Doctoral dissertation, KTH, Stockholm.
Lohmeyer, Q., Albers, A., Radimersky, A., Breitschuh, J., Horvath, I., & Rusak, Z. (2014). Individual and organizational acceptance of Systems Engineering methods: Survey and recommendations. In Proc. TMCE, 1531-1540.
López-Mesa, B., & Bylund, N. (2011). A study of the use of concept selection methods from inside a company, Research in Engineering Design, 22(1), 7–27.
Madni A. M., & Sievers M. (2018). Model-Based Systems Engineering: Motivation, Current Status and Research Opportunities. Systems Engineering, 8(1), 1–19.
Majláth, M., & Ricordel, P. (2021). European Motor Vehicle Manufacturers' CSR Trends–The Effect of the Emission Scandal, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 18(11), 29-48.
McDermott, T. A., Folds, D. J., & Hallo, L. (2020). Addressing Cognitive Bias in Systems Engineering Teams, In INCOSE International Symposium, 30(1), 257-271.
Pozatti, M., Bernardes, M. M. E. S., Vieira, D. R., & Chain, M. C. (2021). Frame conditions for implementing design methods in the product development industry. International Journal of Product Development, 24(4), 297-319.
Rabe, M., Bilan, Y., Widera, K., & Vasa, L. (2022). Application of the Linear Programming Method in the Construction of a Mathematical Model of Optimization Distributed Energy. Energies, 15(5), 18-31.
Rasiel, E. M., & Friga, P. N. (2001). The McKinsey Mind, New York, McGraw-Hill.
Reiß, N., Albers, A., & Bursac, N. (2017). Approaches to increasing method acceptance in agile product development processes. In DS 87-4 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 17) Vol 4: Design Methods and Tools, Vancouver, Canada, 435-444.
Selart, M. (2010). A leadership perspective on decision making, A Leadership Perspective on Decision Making, Cappelen Academic Publishers, Oslo.
Talimian, A., & Vychytil, J. (2021). Numerical study of frontal collision effects on an occupant’s safety, in autonomous vehicles, with non-standard seating configurations, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 18(6), 127-140.
Tien, J. M., & Berg, D. (2003). A case for service systems engineering, J. Syst. Sci. Syst. Eng., 12, 13–38.
Tjandra, N.C., Rihova, I., Snell, S., Den Hertog, C.S., & Theodoraki, E. (2021). Mega-events brand meaning co-creation: the Olympic case, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 30(1), 58-73.
Tremblay, N., Laporte, C.Y., Poliquin, D. & Menaceur, J. (2019). Implementing systems engineering and project management processes in a Canadian company – Overview and Results Achieved. INCOSE International Symposium, 29, 105-129.
Vanek, F., Jackson, P., Grzybowski, R. & Whiting, M. (2017). Effectiveness of Systems Engineering Techniques on New Product Development: Results from Interview Research at Corning Incorporated, Modern Economy, 8, 141-160.
Wallace, K. (2011). Tranferring Design Methods into Practice, In: Birkhofer, H. (Ed.), The Future of Design Methodology, Springer-Verlag London Limited, London, 239–248.
Walter, M. (2009). Social Research Methods. Oxford University Press.
Young, R., Chen, W., Quazi, A., Parry, W., Wong, A., & Poon, S.K. (2020). The relationship between project governance mechanisms and project success: An international data set, International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 13(7), 1496-1521.